Speed Up Fracture Healing

Zygomaticomaxillary Fracture Treatment, Recovery, Surgery, Healing Time and Symptoms

Zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture is one of the types of facial skeleton fractures. Just like fracture in the zygoma, this happens on the face after a strong impact on the facial skeleton. Unlike calcaneus fracture and the sternum fracture, this one might affect the way you breathe and your vision as well. For instance, a patient with ZMC fracture is not allowed to blow hard into the nose within the next ten days after the bone fracture happened. When the bones are displaced, this would be even more difficult to address. The fracture healing time might take longer than necessary. Maxillary fracture is another type of fracture injury that affects the facial skeleton. Thus, the patient should be extra careful especially with more complicated cases of the fracture.

In the formation of the facial skeleton, the zygomaticomaxillary complex can help develop the aesthetic appearance of the face. It also contributes to the function of the skeleton as well. Without ZMC, no cheek bone formation would be noticed on the human facial skeleton. This also serves as the border between the maxillary sinus and temporal fossa and the orbital contents. Moreover, it also serves by supporting the binocular vision of the humans, no wonder why the vision would be affected by the fracture on the zygomatic arch. This arch is the part where the masseter muscle is inserted. Another important role for the arch would be to protect the coronoid process and temporalis muscle.

Nasal fracture ranks first when it comes to the different types of facial fracture.  The second one in the list would be zygomatic arch fracture. It is a bone vulnerable to trauma due to its prominent convex shape. If the patient experiences displaced bones with this type of fracture, just like in Lefort fracture, this would already be evident in some aesthetic deformities.

Frequency

Zygomaticomaxillary fractures are more common among males than in females, with a one is to four ratio. These are most frequent among people who are aged 20 to 30 years. Women patients who are abused by their partners are usually victims of zygomaticomaxillary bone fracture. Mandible fracture also happens to women who are surprisingly attacked by an unknown assailant.

Causes

This fracture of facial bone is usually caused by falls, personal altercations, vehicular accidents, and in sometimes, contact sports. Some patients with broken zygomaticomaxillary bones usually have other types of fractures in some body parts aside from the face.

Fractured ZMC Classifications

There are different types of classification of ZMC fracture in adults because ZMC fracture in children does not usually happen.

  • Type A fracture. This refers to a zygomaticomaxillary injury that only happens to one of the tetrapod components, such as the zygomatic arch (A1), lateral orbital wall (A2), and inferior orbital rim (A3). This is not really common among patients with ZMC bone fracture.
  • Type B fracture. This refers to fractures that happen to all the four buttresses.
  • Type C fracture. This refers to the complex fractures wherein the fractured zygomatic bone has comminution.

Even if these are not really clinically significant as the classifications of the fractures in the facial skeleton, these are helpful to doctors who would communicate with each other during research and other purposes. While type A injuries are not common, combined type B and C injuries compose 62% of the injuries on the ZMC.

Evaluation

Facial trauma usually happens in the spots of the facial skeleton that are more fragile. This means that during the examination of facial fractures, the doctor should be checking the hemodynamic stability and airway control of the facial skeleton. The doctor should also check for a possibility of spinal injury during clinical examination. A globe injury should be carefully checked as well.

During the stabilized condition of the patient, the doctor can then ask about the injury history of the patient and do physical examination afterwards. After the facial fracture has been identified, an ophthalmologic consultation is still necessary.

Symptoms

Pain is the primary symptom of an injury on the ZMC. Other ZMC fracture symptoms would include edema, malar flattening, ecchymosis of the eyelids and cheek, palpable periorbital step-offs, and more. If the facial skeleton was hit with a strong traumatic force, the patient might experience rotation of the medial, posterior and inferior parts of the zygomatic bone. Another offshoot from the fracture would be trismus, which restricts the movement of the jaw. Infraorbital nerve injury is another result of the fracture.

When to Seek Surgical Intervention

Fracture surgery is deemed necessary if the following things happen:

  • Visual defect. Orbital apex syndrome and significant exopthalmos, which are eye defects, would call for immediate surgery before any further fracture complications would happen to the patient’s vision.
  • Globe displacement. Hypophthalmos or enophthalmos happens after the edema resolution. This will also call for acute orbital dystopia.
  • Extraocular muscle dysfunction. Local tissue edema, muscle contusion, extraocular muscle entrapment or strangulation can cause dysfunction on the ocular muscles. Without immediate surgery, these could result to muscle necrosis.
  • Significant orbital floor disruption. This usually refers to injuries that affect 25 to 50% of the orbital floor. Surgical repair and orbital exploration are necessary.
  • Displaced comminuted fractures. These will deform the facial skeleton if not repaired through surgery immediately.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis of the fractured zygoma does not usually make use of traditional facial radiographs. The CT scan is usually rendered as the most useful method of ZMC fracture diagnosis that will help in determining the extent of the injury. With the help of the CT scan, the doctor can determine a more accurate way of how to treat ZMC fracture quick. This fracture also concerns the head and the brain, which is why the diagnosis should lead to a correct way to treat ZMC fracture.

There are many other types of diagnostic tests that can be performed to check the injury brought about by zygomaticomaxillary fracture. A visual acuity test should be performed to check the eyes after all a significant disruption to the bony orbit. Another necessary test would be the forced-duction tests. This will help check if there is a mechanical restriction of the globe motion.

Medical Treatment

ZMC fractures, just like tripod fracture, can be treated with medicines. If a patient wants to buy medications in a convenient way, emedicine is available. Displaced ZMC fracture treatment usually consists of a soft diet, close outpatient monitoring, and some more medications.

Surgical Treatment

The recovery time of the fracture would depend on when the injured bone will become stable enough through reduction. Even if any patient would desire to find ways on how to heal quickly, some considerations like minimizing functional deformity and scars have to be taken to view. These ways on treating fracture of zygoma quickly will only be done a few days after the injury.

During surgical treatment, anesthesia would be administered. After this, the surgeon should check for skin lacerations where the screws and plates can be administered. Common surgeries done on patients are incisions on the lateral orbit, sublabial, scalp incisions and lower eyelid. These incisions need to be operated in a hierarchical style.

The patient can choose which type of incision can be done since a fracture cast cannot be used on the face. This also goes the same for brace/braces. The sublabial incision is a subtle incision with minimal morbidity. This will make reduction for zygomaticomaxillary buttress possible. The lateral orbital incision is necessary for fractures that cannot be taken care of by sublabial incision. The lowed eyelid incision is another subtle cut but this might result to either corneal exposure or eyelid malposition. While there could be fracture complications, these are also surgical complications. This incision is necessary for fractures that need to expose three buttresses for a complete repair and rehabilitation of the fracture. The scalp incision is already required for severely comminuted ZMC fracture injuries. This incision has little morbidity but this little cut could also result to scalp anesthesia and some scars.

After surgery, it would still take a few weeks as zygomaticomaxillary fracture healing time before complete recovery will take place. By then, caution should still be practiced to avoid injuring the sensitive facial bone.

Zygomatic Fracture Treatment | Zygomatic Bone Fracture Recovery Time, Surgery, Healing and Symptoms

The human body is supported by the bones in it that allow movement and protection of the important organs inside. They even help in storing the nutrients that are needed by the body to function well. Thus, you need to take care of your bones in order to let them continue to function the way that they should. These bones are also built and established hard with the help of calcium phosphate. As this mineral is deposited in every bone that you have in your body, this will undoubtedly make you and your bones stronger.

Anatomy

A zygomatic bone is one of the bones in the body, particularly found on the upper and lateral portion of the face. It is the type of facial bone that gives the form to the cheek. A zygomatic bone composes the infratemporal and temporal fossae, forming the floor of the orbit and a part of the lateral wall near the cheek. Like many other bones in the body, this is also at risk to being broken or fractured. A fractured zygomatic bone can happen when the face receives a heavy blow during a fist fight or accident. In boxing, there are instances when the fist of the opponent will land right to the bone near your cheeks, where this facial bone is. Thus, a boxing profession can expose the person to the risks of having a zygomatic bone fracture.

Fractures

A zygomatic fracture could affect the orbit part of the face. This type of fracture of facial bone is usually caused by a blowout fracture. A zygoma fracture affects the orbital floor and/or the medial wall on the face. There are cases when the bone fracture is dislocated or just broken. While the zygoma bone’s central part seems to stay untouched, the strength of the impact would instead be felt by the three buttresses. When any of these three buttresses are affected by the impact, this could result to any of the following conditions:

  • Intraorbital fracture
  • Zygomatic arch fracture
  • Displaced zygomatico-frontal structure

Gender Occurrence

While the parents are already looking forward to the fracture healing time wherein the face can be completely used without a hitch, some are still worried about zygomatic fracture in children. In most cases though, more males are exposed to the risk of zygomatic fractures than do women. This is also the same case with orbital fractures. The risks are higher for people at the age of 10 to 40 and those aged 70 years and above. Thus, facial fractures that occur at the age of 41 to 69 would likely not increase the chances of having to experience some orbital fractures or zygomaticomaxillary complex. This is also noted as ZMC fracture.

Zygomatic Arch Fractures

Among all the facial bones, the nasal bone is the most injury prone zygomatic bone. The incidence of exposure to zygoma fractures ranks second with the zygoma. Young males are the usual victims of this type of fracture injury too. This could be due to the fact that they are also the ones who are typically involved with trouble that leads to injury on the face. The trauma to the zygomatic arch is usually caused by vehicular accidents, assault and sometimes, contact sports.

Future Assessment

The patient will usually be asked about the following things:

  • Numbed area. The upper lip or infaorbital part of the face would likely feel numbed. This numbness could also spread to the canine teeth, central teeth, or lateral teeth. These are teeth that are found near the maxillary part of the face. This is why the ZMC fracture also happens. This can be felt among 70 to 90 percent of the patients with injured zygomatic parts of their faces.
  • Injury mechanism. The doctor will ask the patient about the incident that led to the zygoma fracture. This allows the doctor to examine if there might be foreign objects inside some open wounds, especially in open zygomatic fractures.
  • Zygomatic fracture symptoms. Some visual symptoms would include a hematoma or neural injury.
  • Other fracture symptoms. These include pain during the spasm of masseter. This movement is also called as trismus. Retrobulbar hemorrhage is signaled by severe pain with visual loss at tines.

Fracture Diagnosis

After asking the patient about one’s medical history and after the physical examination, diagnosis should be done to determine if one has a fracture on the zygomatic arches.

  • X-ray of the skull. This is the most basic diagnostic test that lets the doctor see the facial, submento-vertical and occiptomental. The doctor can then check all the results to know how to heal the fracture. This diagnosis is also done for sternum fracture, in as much as it is necessary for calcaneus fracture. To give an estimate of the recovery time for an injury like or even for mandible fracture maxillary fracture, a well done diagnosis should also be performed.
  • CT scan. This is a more advanced type of diagnosis to examine the anatomy of the patient’s facial make up. This is necessary if the doctor sees to it that fracture surgery might be necessary to know how to treat zygomatic fracture quick. In some cases, medicines have to be taken to ease the pain away. Emedicine can be obtained online for the convenience of the patients. By CT scanning, some displaced fractures can be seen as well.
  • Ultrasound. This is necessary for getting an image of the butterfly fracture. The images would also be necessary for assessing the zygomatic complex fracture. These images can help the doctor clearly see as to how to treat zygomatic fracture.
  • MRI scan. This is inferior to a CT scan, but this is still useful in detecting soft tissue herniation. Moreover, this helps determine the presence of metallic foreign bodies inside the patient’s body if there is an open wound in the zygomatic injury.

Management of the Fractured Zymgomatic Bone

  • The nose should not be used for blowing within the next ten days after the accident.
  • The patient might need to consult with maxillofacial surgeon and ophthalmologists.
  • Some zygomatic fracture treatment would entail the use of antibiotics along with outpatient monitoring.
  • Surgery as the zygomatic fracture treatment is necessary in cases like:

–         White-eye blowout in children, which need surgery within 48 to 72 hours

–         Symptomatic enopthalmos of less than 2mm

–         Damage of more than 50% on the orbital floor

–         Failure of the diplopia to get cured after two to three week.

Fracture Complications

Some complications that should be watched out for are optic nerve damage, globe injury, and persistent dioplopia, which will only delay the surgery even more. If the patient has zygomatic tripod fracture, the case should be handled with more care.

Prevention

Fractures are usually experienced by people during accidents. There are some tips to help prevent accidents and bad impacts on one’s life.

  • Always wear seatbelts to help avoid injuries during road traffic and vehicular accidents. A Brazilian study tried to cover the relationship between the wearing of seatbelts and types of facial fractures. With the seatbelt on, further injuries and fractures can be prevented.
  • Avoid drinking too much alcohol. A drunken person can easily find trouble, which prompted some people to promote the use of anything plastic in a place where drinking is allowed. When brawling ensues, the troublemakers might wake up the next day with broken zygomatic bones. Other recommendations would even attempt to touch the pricing and distribution of the alcohol to people. The bad news is that you might have limited facial actions while waiting for the zygomatic fracture healing time to be over.
  • Use protective equipment during contact sports game. However, even with the protective gears on, the fracture of zygoma might still not be prevented. There are cases when head butts would be the reason of the tear or fracture on the face of the patient due to the impact of the heads banging together.

These are all the basic things that patient should be aware of if one has zygomatic bone fractures. This way, there would be no mistake that would cause the patient even more pain and agony. There are certain things that can only make the fractured bone even more damaged.

Weber Fracture Treatment, Surgery, Healing Time, Recovery, Types and Exercises

According to a study on bone fracture, the ankle is one of the frequently injured joints in the body. Patients with this type of fracture have to undergo lateral x-ray and AP for fracture diagnosis in order for the surgeon to know how to manage the injury. There are different types of ankle fractures that have to be analyzed to know how to heal each type. Proper classification of the fracture will also help the doctor analyze the stability of the fracture injury and the extent of the damage. For better understanding, the Weber classification of ankle fractures will be combined with the Lauge-Hansen system. The Weber A, B, C fracture fracture evaluation would be done easily then.

In the case of other types of fracture such as Salter Harris fracture, there are different types of fractures that happen on the growth plate of kids. This Salter Harris fracture classification also uses another system. On the other hand, Schatzker tibial plateau fracture is under another classification system. Schatzker fracture classification is a system used to categorize tibial fractures.

The Weber Classification System

This is based on the syndesmosis of the injury or the degree of articulation of the fracture of the ankle. The Weber fracture classification system has become famous due to its simplicity. This is how it classifies ankle fracture.

  • Weber A fracture. The fracture happens below the syndesmosis and the broken bone is intact.
  • Weber B fracture. The fracture is considered transsyndesmotic with a partial break of the syndesmosis.
  • Weber C fracture. The fracture happens just above the syndesmosis which is totally ruptured. This is also characterized by the instability of the fractured ankle.

The Lauge-Hansen Classification System

This is based on the trauma mechanism of the fractures. The types of ankle fracture are determined after radiographs are obtained from the fracture. The severity of the fracture will be analyzed. Thus, the Lauge-Hansen system is already a big help to the doctor in analyzing the instability and damage of the ligamentous injury.

The criteria of this system’s classification of ankle fractures are:

  • Direction of the force relative to the foot, which could be adduction (20%) and exorotation (80%).
  • Position of the foot during the occurrence of the injury, which could be pronation (20%) or supination (80%)

Weber A Ankle Fracture – Lauge Hansen SA

This is the simplest type of Weber ankle fractures. The diagnosis of this Weber fracture and its treatment can be done simply. This type of Weber bone fracture accounts for 20% to 25% of all the ankle fractures. The injury could have happened when the foot is in supination and the talus is hit by an adduction force. The fracture of ankle will likely be felt first on the lateral side with a lot of tension. Here is how the Weber A fibula fracture or similar type A fracture has happened:

  1. The supination on the foot causes a tear on the lateral collateral ligament. This could also result to an avulsion fracture on the part just below the tibial plafond and the syndesmosis.
  2. The medial malleolus is pushed off vertically when the foot moves on a talar tilt. This makes the Weber A fracture ankle unstable.

It should be noted though that that malleolar ankle fracture are comparable to a ligamentous injury. Another fracture on the tibia, particularly an avulsion fracture, would be the tillaux fracture. This happens when the anterior syndesmosis happens to get attached. However, this type of fracture rarely happens.

Weber B Ankle Fracture

This accounts for 60% to 70% of all the Weber fractures, making it the most common among the types of fracture of ankle. In this fracture, the foot is still in supination while the talus got hit by an exorotation force, which happens when the lower leg does an endorotation. This is how Weber type B fracture happens stage by stage:

  1. The first break on the bone during a Weber B fibular fracture or similar fracture would be on the lateral side of the ankle. This is due to the maximum tension that has dominated this side. The tidiofibular ligament breaks first when the talus does an exorotation.
  2. With the foot in supination, the firm hold of the lateral collateral ligament would hold the lateral malleolus in place. As a result, it would break with just a simple move. Thus, when the talus rotates, the Weber B fibula fracture becomes worse and cause a seemingly spiral break on the bone. This is also triggered when the lateral malleolus moves from anterior to posterior after being pushed off. The weber B distal fibula fracture usually happens above the ankle, just a few centimeters from it, and continues to break proximally.
  3. After the displacement of the lateral malleolus after being pushed off, the posterior tidiofibular ligament would break. This is also considered as the avulsion fracture of the malleolus tertius.
  4. As the talus moves to the posterior, the medial side of the ankle would be under more pressure. This will result to a rupture of the detoid ligament.

Generally, the supination of this type of Weber fractures usually occurs in a clockwise manner. The exorotation injury of the Weber fibula fracture happens in the following manner:

  1. Tearing of the anterior tibiofibular ligament
  2. Oblique breaking of the distal fibula
  3. Tearing of the posterior tidiofibular ligament
  4. Tearing of the medial collateral ligament

The diagnosis of this type of Weber injury might be a bit complicated. The result of the x-ray might not show any fractured ankle because the broken bones and ligaments would align back together. Thus, further diagnostic tests might be performed to find the Weber ankle fracture especially if the pain persists. This is one of the ever present fracture symptoms that should tell the doctor and the patient that something is definitely wrong after an injury. The diagnosis should be done correctly in order to know how to treat Weber fracture effectively. An effective Weber fracture treatment would definitely be a big help on reducing the length of the fracture healing time.

Weber C Ankle Fracture

This accounts for 20% of the fractures that occur on the ankle. Weber C fibula fracture happens when the foot is planted on the ground in pronation while the talus is hit with an exorotation force. This Weber C fibular fracture happens in the following stages:

  1. The injury will first happen on the ankle’s medial side. The tension is at the strongest in this area which immediately causes it to break. This will result to the tearing of the medial collateral ligament or to the avulsion fracture of the medial malleolus.
  2. Upon being freed from its medial ligament, the talus will rotate externally. However, as the foot is in pronation, the fibula would move away from the tibia with the absence of tension on the lateral side. This will result to the tearing of the anterior syndesmotic ligament.
  3. A distal movement will happen to the fibula while it remains fixed in is position. The interosseus membrane will tear at this point and the fibular shaft will break above the syndesmosis. However, x-ray tests might not show the fibular fracture.
  4. The posterior syndesmotic ligament would tear apart.

The Weber C fracture ankle also happens in a clockwise manner, just like type C. However, this fracture involves an pronation exorotation injury on the fractured ankle bone.

  1. Tearing of the medial collateral band
  2. Tearing of the anterior tidiofibular ligament
  3. Fractures of the fibula in a transverse manner
  4. Tearing of the posterior tidiofibular ligament

An experienced doctor would know how to interpret each of these types of injury to determine how to treat Weber fracture quick. The surgeon might determine if fracture surgery is necessary or not. In some cases of broken ankle bones, the patient would be asked to wear a fracture cast for a few weeks. This way, the recovery time would be determined and the patient would then be able to make plans around this period. To achieve complete recovery, rehabilitation should be done. A properly done rehab can be facilitated by a physical therapist, who can help you achieve complete recovery at the right Weber fracture recovery time.

Undisplaced Fracture Treatment, Healing Time, Surgery, Recovery, Symptoms and Types

Getting to know the different types and names of bone fracture the affects the hand, wrist, leg, feet, spine, hip, and the ankle.

Fracture is a condition wherein there is a crack or break on the continuity of a hard tissue in our body. This hard tissue is commonly represented by the bones. Different parts of the body that have bones have the tendency to suffer from a fracture injury under given instances and conditions.

To be able to better understand what bone fracture is, the following information and details would be helpful:

The Different Classifications of Fracture

According to orthopedic medicine, there are three types of bone fracture: simple, compound, and compression fractures.

  • Simple fracture – this is the type of fracture wherein the crack or break happens inside and does not show off on the skin’s surface. This is more commonly known as closed fracture. In its mild occurrences, an undisplaced fracture may just happen wherein the bone is not totally detached from the broken undisplaced bones.
  • Compound fracture – this is the type of fracture wherein the crack or break on the bone surfaces on the skin, making the broken bones more susceptible to contamination and infection. This is also known as the open fracture.
  • Compression fracture – occurs on the vertebrae. This condition is usually associated with osteoporosis wherein a certain part of the vertebra (usually the front portion) collapses due to the brittleness and susceptibility of the bones to fracture. The common picture of this type of fracture is an undisplaced fracture spine. Usually, non displaced fracture from compression happens when the patient has a disease such as osteoporosis. This is one of the common causes of undisplaced bone fracture in the spine.

There are still other types of bone fracture other than the three basic ones:

  • Complete fracture – a complete break in the continuity of the bone.  This can be either a simple of compound classification of fracture. This is a completely displaced fracture, the exact opposite to undisplaced fractures.
  • Incomplete fracture – there is a mild crack on the continuity of the bone. This is usually a nondisplaced fracture. At times, the break on the bone is hard to identify with just the use of an X-ray method and a CT scan would already be needed to see the severity of the condition.
  • Comminuted fracture – this is the condition wherein the bone is broken into several pieces.

 

At the same time, bone fracture found in different parts of the body as already been further classified. Most of these bone fractures are named after the doctor that first identified the condition. At times, it is just named according to the area where the fracture occurs.

  1. Fractures affecting the hands

There are three types of fracture that may affect the hands and these types are based on its location. These are finger fractures, metacarpal fractures (affecting the body of the hands), and scaphoid fractures (affecting the heel of the hands).

Whether the condition is a displaced or undisplaced fracture hand, the symptoms are usually the same. These are pain, swelling, deformity, and immobility. These are the most evident symptoms in displaced or undisplaced injury. The location of the fracture also affects the displaced or undisplaced fracture healing time.

  1. Fractures that affects the wrist

The most common forms of wrist fracture are distal radial and ulnar styloid fracture. The carpal parts of the wrist may still suffer from fracture but this rarely happens. Still, whether the condition is a displaced or undisplaced fracture wrist, the fracture symptoms for this type are still pain and swelling. The basic identification that one is suffering from a fractured undisplaced wrist is the immobilization of the wrist part and may even bring about deformity of the same area, if the fracture is displaced.

  1. Fractures of the leg

There are three parts of the legs: femur, tibia, and fibula.  The name of the types of leg fracture is named after the part that is broken. Thus it is called, tibial fracture of fibula fracture depending on the affected portion. Each of these parts may be subjected to fracture. But still, whatever part it may occur or whether it is a displaced or undisplaced fracture leg, it is still right to immediately see the doctor once the possibility of having a fracture is present.

  1. Fractures of the foot

The foot has a total of 26 bones that may suffer from a fracture. The most common bones that would suffer from fracture in foot are the toes. But still, the same general procedure and treatments should be followed in treating a displaced or undisplaced fracture feet.

 

Other than these parts of the body, there are still other parts that may be affected with a fracture. This is important to know because there would be certain types of bone fracture treatment that is needed on a certain part. For example, a fractured hip would have a different procedure and treatment from a vertebral fracture. Thus, it is really important to know the location of the fracture.

Symptoms and Diagnosis

Whatever the form or location of the fracture may be, whether it is nondisplaced fracture or not, there are similar symptoms that would help us identify that there is already an occurrence of bone fracture. These symptoms are as follows:

  • Pain
  • Swelling
  • Deformity (in severe cases especially when it already involves displacement of the affected area)
  • Tenderness of the affected area
  • Difficulty to move

At the same time, the best way to identify a displaced or undisplaced fracture hip, leg, and other bones is through an X-ray method. In any forms of fracture, it is the X-ray procedure that is being used by the doctor to see the condition of the fractured area. However, there are also instances wherein this may be inadequate. In cases of an undisplaced fracture ankle, the help of a CT scan is more useful because it can really identify the condition of the fracture and what bone is affected. There are many types of ankle fracture and each of these parts would require different treatment procedures. Thus, it is just important to conduct this fracture diagnosis so that fracture complications may be avoided and the right form of fracture surgery, if needed, would be applied.

Immediate and temporary treatment procedures

The main causes of a broken ankle or whatever type of fracture are sudden forceful and high impact, stress, and medical conditions like osteoporosis. When these causes are already present, it is just right for the victim or anyone who see the incident to perform the necessary first aid procedure to avoid further damage.

First aid treatments for fracture would involve temporary splinting. This is a very helpful procedure because it would avoid further movement of the affected area which may just cause further complications. At the same time, it would also be helpful to take medicines that can help in contradicting pain and swelling.

Fracture Treatment

In any forms of fracture, there are two forms of procedures that are applied: surgical and nonsurgical procedure. For the nonsurgical procedure, the use of fracture cast is needed to support the affected area and bring back its natural alignment. Brace/braces would also help and support the body in naturally healing the affected area. The usual recovery time for this kind of procedure is up to 6 weeks. But still, this would change depending on the severity and location of the fractured bone and the capability of the individual to treat his own.

On the other hand, the use of fracture surgery depends on the type of the fracture, location, and condition of the individual. This can only be identified after the doctor has thoroughly seen the condition. In some cases, there are really no other options but to undergo a surgical procedure because this can only be the way on how to treat the bone fracture quick.

These and more details are what we need to know about fracture in general. Seeing the different types of fracture and knowing the minute details that we need to know are already helpful in preparing ourselves if ever such incidence would happen. The only important thing that we need to know about fracture is that when one is already suffering from its symptoms and has been through its causes, it is just right to immediately seek for the doctor so that there would be no further complications that one will suffer from.

Ulnar Styloid Fracture Treatment | Surgery, Symptoms, Healing Time, Recovery

There are many bones and other structures that can be found on the wrist region. At the same time, there are other structures that support the wrist for its proper function.  The wrist is the part of our body that is highly mobile. It enables us to support actions that involve complex movements and it can also stand heavy force that we expect through its help. Because of this, it is not surprising that one can suffer from displaced or undisplaced fracture wrist.

Wrist fracture is one of the most common types of bone fracture.  In fact, it is believed to comprise around one-fourth of total incidents of fracture of the limbs. The usual parts of the wrist that suffer from fracture injury are the distal radius and ulnar styloid (more commonly known as the ulna). On the other hand, the carpal parts of the wrist do not suffer much from fracture. There are only rare cases of fracture on the carpal areas. Identifying the right fracture diagnosis and treatment would ensure the recover of the affected individual.

In this article, we would be focusing on one type of wrist fractures—the ulnar styloid fracture. At the same time, we will still be discussing the other forms of wrist fracture that would be associated with the fracture of ulnar styloid. Thus, we might also discuss along the way the conditions that are related to an undisplaced fracture hand.

To understand what an ulnar styloid bone fracture is, we need to first identify the location of this bone. The ulnar styloid is one of the long bones found in the forearm. It is in parallel with the distal radius. It is also one of the ones that supports and coordinates with the carpal points and wrist joints to provide the right action and movement of the wrist area.

In most fracture instances that affect the wrist, it is the distal radius that is highly affected. This is the part of the forearm that is parallel to the ulnar styloid. Most cases that affect the wrist are associated with a distal radial fracture. In fact, there are already many forms of this fracture. Still, half of the cases that suffer from distal radial fracture also suffer from ulnar styloid avulsion fracture, resulting to distal radial ulnar fracture.  This is the reason distal radial is also similar to a patient that has a radial styloid fracture. Thus, an ulnar styloid fracture treatment would be better understood in relation to the treatments that are given to distal radial fracture.

Causes

The common reasons for ulnar styloid fractures are also similar with other types of bone fractures. High-impact falls and vehicular accidents are still the leading causes of this problem. Kids and adults that have fractured styloid ulnar bone are usually those that are involved in activities that are risk-taking. At the same time, older people tend to encounter this type of fracture because of sudden falls. At times, the occurrence and fracture complications of this type of injury are being affected with osteoporosis among older people.

Symptoms of wrist fracture

Just like any other forms of fracture, the immediate symptom that one would encounter is pain. In the case of this type of fracture, wrist pain is the first thing that would be noticed. At the same time, the pain goes with swelling and tenderness of the broken ulnar styloid bone. In instances wherein one suffers from a displaced fracture, deformity can be observed in the affected region.  The area with the ulnar styloid injury would look weird, making it easily distinguishable. More of these symptoms can be observed when one suffers from a distal ulnar styloid fracture or the fracture wherein both the distal radius and ulnar styloid are cracked or broken.

At times, it may be hard to identify a broken bone. This is especially true for a nondisplaced fracture on the ulnar styloid process. Though the same symptoms may be experienced, a nondisplaced fracture is just hard to identify because there would be no deformity on the affected region.  Still, it is appropriate to take note of the presence of the abovementioned symptoms to ensure one’s wellness and health condition. Right after the accident, go to the doctor. This is advisable especially when you hear something crack and you start feeling the pain. Nondipslaced fractures are especially tricky because their symptoms do not show immediately.

When one already suffers from all these fracture symptoms due to abovementioned causes, it is just right to immediately seek the help of a doctor to avoid fracture complications that may just worsen the condition.

Immediate and temporary treatment

When suffering from the abovementioned symptoms and thinks that there is a possibility for a fracture (whether it may be the distal radius or the ulnar styloid), it is appropriate to consider first aid procedures to avoid complications. First aid treatments would include temporary splinting of the affected part and taking of medicines to control the pain and swelling of the fractured wrist. When all these things have already been secured, rushing to the hospital is needed to receive the right treatment for the styloid fracture.

Diagnosing a wrist fracture

The very basic method to identify ulnar styloid fractures and other types of bone fracture is through an X-ray method. It is through this that the condition and severity of the fracture would be identified. In some instances, the need for a CT scan may be needed to ensure the right way of styloid process treatment or if there would be a need for a fracture surgery for the broken bone.

In cases where one suffers from an undsplaced fracture, the results that the CT scan would provide would be able to identify the right ulnar styloid process that the doctor will use for the recover of the patient. It is also through this process that one would be able to confirm the severity and condition of the ulnar styloid process fracture especially when the X-ray failed to show the right condition of the fracture.

Treatment

There are two ways on how to treat wrist fracture quick: surgical and non-surgical. This is just true for any forms of fracture. The use of nonsurgical method involves the use of fracture cast to support the alignment of the broken bone. This is usually done on nondisplaced fracture cases. Usually, the fracture healing time for this method would take up to six weeks for any other classification of bone fracture. In the case of ulnar styloid fracture, the use of long arm plaster is needed and would take up to 3 to 4 weeks as its recovery time. In this method, the fracture is being healed naturally through the body’s own mechanism. The use of brace/braces is just incorporated in the treatment to help the body reconfigure the broken structure. While waiting for the ulnar styloid fracture healing time to be over, you need patience because you cannot move your wrist unless it is completely healed.

On the other hand, the use of surgical method would be highly dependent on the condition and location of the fracture. A styloid process of ulna may require a closed reduction together with the use of a K-wire. This is commonly used in cases where the fracture occurred at the base. This is important because it helps in securing the stability of the affected area. At times, open reduction is preferred. The right use of surgical procedure is highly dependent on the condition and severity of the fracture. Only the doctor would be able to suggest the right procedure after considering many factors that would highly affect the treatment.

These are just some of the basic details and information that we ought to know about ulnar styloid fracture and the rest of the wrist fracture incidences. Still, there are other forms of wrist fracture which is basically affecting the distal radius. Getting to know more about these forms and how they can be treated would be essential too. Finding out about these matters would not be difficult to find since there are already quite a number of articles that have been written for these different types of fractures. After all, most cases of ulnar styloid fracture are affected or go with a distal radius fracture. Thus, it is really important to learn about them.

Trimalleolar Fracture Treatment, Symptoms, Healing Time, Surgery and Recovery

When it comes to bone fracture, one of the areas that are susceptible to this condition is the ankle region. In fact, there are different types of ankle fracture. One of the most common types is what they call as the bimalleoral fracture. At the same time, there is also one that is called the tibial plafond fracture. In this article, we will talk about the trimalleolar fracture and would try to compare this form of ankle fracture with other known forms of ankle fracture injury.

In addition, we will also discuss the different details and information that is crucial in better understanding what is trimalleolar fracture. Information such as its causes, symptoms, and treatments would also be discussed in this article.

 

Understanding the anatomy of the ankle region

There are three main parts in the ankle region: talus (or the foot bone), tibia (or the shin bone), the fibula (or the bone that is located outside the ankle). With these parts, there are still other important structures in this area. These structures are the medial malleolus, lateral malleolus, and the posterior malleolus. Though there are three malleoli that are discussed, only the medial and lateral malleoli are considered as malleolus.  When these bones crash it is when trimalleolar ankle fracture occurs.

Definition of trimalleolar fracture

As its name goes, this type of bone fracture is a condition wherein the three malleoli crashed with each other and caused the crack or break. However, as already mentioned, there are only two considered malleoli and these are the medial and lateral malleoli. However, when the crash between the two already affects the posterior process in the tibial area, then this is already called as the ankle trimalleolar fracture. The term is just loosely called as such to encompass the three structures that are affected in the sudden impact which resulted to a fractured ankle.

This would clearly give us an idea that a trimalleolar fracture is different with the bimalleolar ankle fracture in the sense that it already affected three structures in the ankle region whereas the bimalleolar type of fracture only affects the medial and lateral malleoli. Aside from this, we cannot identify other differences that might distinguish the former type of ankle fracture from the latter.

In addition, a trimalleolar bone fracture is considered to be more of a stress fracture rather than a burst fracture. This means that when too much weight or pressure is put on the ankle, it would result to the fracture which is called as the ankle trimalleolar fracture.

Causes of trimalleolar fracture

Just like the causes of a bimalleolar fracture, the following instances are also the causes of a tri malleolar fracture:

  • Twisting: Among all the causes of ankle fractures, twisting is the most common reason. This is due to the abnormal and irregular rotation of the ankle.
  • Rolling: The sudden change in movement or irregular foot placement is what causes a person to roll. This instance is the next most common reason for having ankle fractures.
  • Falling or tripping: This is an instance wherein one missed a step which made him fall or trip. The ankle would be greatly affected by this since it is the area that would receive the weight of the body once this instance occurs.
  • Sudden and forceful impact: The most common picture for this cause is vehicular accidents.
  • Weakened ligaments: Commonly affected are older people where their ligaments are too weak to support the weight of the body. This condition highly affects the function and condition of the different parts of the ankle which would later result to a trimalleolar injury. Older people with diseases such as osteoporosis or some types of cancer are prone to trimalleolar fractures too.

Symptoms of a trimalleolar fracture

  • Pain (which is just similar with other types of fracture of ankle)
  • Swelling
  • Difficulty to move the injured part
  • Insensitive of the affected part to touch
  • Deformity (on its severe condition)

These fracture symptoms are true for other forms of fracture even if it is not on the ankle region. Thus, when these symptoms are already felt, it is suggested to immediately call the doctor to avoid any fracture complications that would just worsen the condition of the injured area or the person itself. But still, it is recommended to take the first precautionary procedures to avoid furthering the break or crack of the bones.

Diagnosis

Just like any forms of fracture, the best way to identify if a person is suffering from this form of bone fracture is through an X-ray procedure. However, before this can be done, it would be advisable to follow the Ottawa ankle rules to identify if a person is suffering from a fracture ankle and not just an ordinary pain. When this is done, the injured individual does not need to undergo unnecessary X-rays that might just result to health hazards. In some cases, a CT scan is also more preferred to really identify the real condition of the fracture and be able to perform the right ankle fracture treatment.

Going through all these processes are vital in coming up with the right kind of procedure on how to heal the fracture. These should even be done immediately when the person suspects a fractured ankle so that there would be no room for complications and other unwanted incidents caused by this condition. The longer you delay the treatment the longer the trimalleolar fracture recovery time will be.

Treatments

Basically, there are things that a person should do first before consulting the doctor. First aid procedures such as the use of improvised immobilization devices are needed to ensure that the broken trimalleolar bones will not be moved before the doctor will see the injury. There might even be a need to take some pain reliever and anti-inflammatory medicines to avoid great pain and swelling of the affected area. There are already some trimalleolar fracture emedicine available through the Web when one needs so. After this, the patient should immediately be sent to the hospital to be observed by the doctor.

There can be two forms of trimalleoral fracture treatment that an individual can go through: nonsurgical and surgical procedures. Through the nonsurgical procedure, the patient may be advised by the doctor to immediately put weight on the affected area on given period of time. This is done when the ankle is stable and there is no trimalleolar ankle fracture dislocation. It may also include the use of brace/braces. The recovery time for this kind of treatment would last for as long as six weeks.

On the other hand, when the condition is too severe the need for a trimalleolar fracture surgery would already be needed. This is especially needed when there is already a trimalleolar fracture dislocation or that bones are completed broken that normal processes of the body cannot handle the treatment on its own. In this case, the fractured trimalleolar bone would go through a certain surgical procedure wherein screws and rods be placed on the ankle to replace the broken parts temporarily and realign the broken parts. There would even be a need for a fracture cast to ensure the alignment of the broken parts. After the trimalleolar fracture recovery period, there would also be a need for a trimalleolar fracture physical therapy to bring back the natural functions of the ankle. This would include some exercises and other rehabilitation procedures so that the patient would really achieve a full trimalleolar fracture recovery. This is especially true when the condition is too severe and complicated.

There is really no definite procedure on how to treat ankle fracture quick because this would greatly depend on a person’s own fracture healing time. Still, it is great that we learn a lot about trimalleolar fractures. Now that we already know the basic details about this form of fracture, it would already be easy for us to compare it with other forms such as the plafond fracture and other types that are affecting that ankle region.

Tibial Plafond Fracture Treatment | Tibial Plafond Bone Fracture Surgery, Recovery, Healing Time and Symptoms

There can be many forms of ankle injury. Each of them has their own areas that are affected. When there are two malleoli that are cracked or broken, the ankle fracture is called as the bimalleolar fracture. On the other hand, when the two malleoli and the posterior process in the tibial area are affected then it is already called the trimalleolar fracture. However, when it already affects the shin bone and the ankle joint then that is a different kind of fracture. This is what they call as the plafond fracture.

In this article, we will talk about this kind of fracture of the ankle and other important details that go with it. All these information and details would be vital in better understanding the nature of the fracture, how to heal it and what other important details should we know about it.

Definition of tibial plafond fracture

The tibial plafond fracture is another form of ankle fracture. This condition affects the tibial plafond or the shin bone of the ankle and the ankle joint. This is also known as the tibial pilon fracture.  Pilon is a term for hammered. This is also called as such because this tibial plafond bone fracture occurs due to the clash of the end of the shin bone and the ankle joint. Thus, when there is a hammering instance between these two bones, tibial plafond fractures happen. Basically, the tibial plafond definition can be shortened as the hammering of two parts in the ankle region.

This is entirely different from the other fractures of the ankle such as the bimalleolar ankle fracture and trimalleolar ankle fracture because it does not affect the malleoli parts. As mentioned, fractured tibial plafond only affects the end of the shin bone and the ankle joint during the clash of these two parts of the ankle region. To be able to understand the difference of these three types of ankle breaks, it would be best to research first on the anatomy of the human ankle. After which, it would already be easier to differentiate one form from the other.

Causes of tibial plafond fracture

There can actually be many causes of the distal tibial plafond fracture. However, the following are the most common causes of this kind of fracture:

  • Vehicular accidents – sudden impact on the ankle region during these instances would cause the fracture,
  • Falling on feet – this is more possible to happen when a person falls from a great height wherein his feet are the first part that falls on the ground. This instance results to the collisions of the bones.

Symptoms of tibial plafond fracture

Just like any other forms of fracture, the following the fracture symptoms for this type of ankle fracture:

  • Pain
  • Swelling
  • Difficulty to walk
  • Affected area becomes tender to touch
  • Deformity (when the fracture is already at its worst condition)

 

Different classification of tibial plafond fracture

There are certain tibial fracture classifications. Each of the classification is important to understand so that the proper medication and procedure can be performed for the affected individual. Here are the following:

  • Type 1: mild fracture; the broken tibial plafond bone is still aligned and congruous. There is only a mild crack on the affected area.
  • Type 2: moderate fracture; the fractured ankle is still aligned and there is a mild incongruence on the joint surface. There can be misalignment of the affected area but it is not too severe to cause deformity.
  • Type 3: severe fracture; the fractured ankle is not anymore aligned and there is a total misalignment of the joint surface. This would even have severe swelling and at times causes an open fracture.

 

Diagnosing tibial plafond fracture

Just like any other forms of fracture, the best way to diagnose a fracture is through an X-ray procedure. It is through this procedure that one would identify the condition of the fracture and what the necessary procedures on how to treat ankle fracture quick. At times, a CT scan would be more preferred to really identify the severity of the tibial plafond injury and what the necessary procedures that a person should undergo.

 

Preliminary procedures for treating an ankle fracture

When faced with a bone fracture, the immediate action that one has to perform is to immobilize the affected area. This would avoid any fracture complications and would even lessen the pain that one would suffer from the fracture. At the same time, ice medication or taking in some medicines that would relieve the pain or inflammation of the affected area would be helpful during the early stage of treating the distal tibial plafond fracture.

Types of treatment for tibial plafond fracture

  • Nonsurgical

Nonsurgical procedures include the use of fracture cast and traction. This is only applicable to individuals who are suffering from type 1 and 2 of tibial plafond fracture. This can also be considered for people who do not have the ability to withstand a surgical procedure in the tibia plafond due to different reasons.

The use of brace/braces is applicable when there is still congruence on the joint surface. On the other hand, the use of traction or the application of force on the suffering part is best for patients who cannot handle a surgical procedure under certain circumstances. The recovery time for both methods would depend on the capability of the individual. There are also home treatments that can help in cutting the tibial plafond fracture recovery time short.

  • Surgical

There are also different forms of tibial plafond fracture surgery procedures. Here are as follows:

  • External fixation: This is best for patients who are suffering from type 2 and 3 tibial plafond fracture. This is considered when the skin does not look good and there is swelling. It may also be considered when the swelling has already subsided depending on the health condition and background of the patient.
  • Internal fixation: This is used when the patient is suffering from either type 2 or 3 tibia fractures. This is made through the use of screws and rods that are inserted on the ankle to realign the fractured ankle from the inside. This can only be considered when there is no swelling and the condition of the patient can entertain such intrusion.
  • Limited internal fixation: This is considered when the patient needs internal fixation due to the damage in the ankle but the soft-tissues cannot stand the full internal fixation process. This method is performed by creating small incisions enough to insert rods and screws that can somehow help in the alignment of the broken ankle from the inside. Then, it is supported by external brace/braces.
  • Ankle fusion: This is a new method in treating ankle injuries and is only performed when the tibial plafond fracture is already on its worst case and returning the normal function of the ankle is already impossible. This provides a stable platform that can help in giving the patient with less pain while walking.

After following the necessary and advised surgical procedures for this type of fracture, it would also be necessary to undergo a rehabilitation to ensure that the ankle is really back on its normal function. This is especially true for patients that would need to go through the ankle fusion procedure so that they can fully adapt to the use of the platform. This rehab period would include exercises to test the full recover of the fractured ankle. The recovery time for this kind of fracture would be a lot dependent on the kind of the fracture, the age and functionality of the person, and other vital details. The condition of the bones would also be another factor on the fracture healing time of the individual and even to the kind of nonsurgical or surgical procedure that he has to go through.

These are just of things that we need to know about tibial plafond fracture. We can now differentiate this form of ankle fracture from bimalleolar fracture and trimalleolar fracture.

Sternum Fracture Treatment | Sternum Bone Fracture Surgery, Healing Time, Recovery, Causes and Symptoms

There are many types of bone fracture that are already identified because the human body has more than 200 bones. Most of the bones can break or crack due to strong impact or due to weakness. Most likely, the classification of these fractures is based on where the break has happened. These fractures are just named on differently; some are named after the broken bone while others are named after the scientists who discovered them. One of the types of fracture injury is the closed sternum fracture. This is a break on the breast bone that affects the skin near the injured area. In most cases, the middle thirds and upper part of the sternum are affected.

Causes

A fractured sternum is usually caused by a strong blow to the chest that results to trauma. Sometimes, a sternal fracture may happen after a resuscitation wherein the ribcage is compressed to get the water out from the chest. Sternum fractures are usually made up of a single crack, but there are also cases when the breastbone is displaced and pushed to the chest cavity. The latter case happens after an extremely strong blow to the chest resulting to fractured sternum bone. If the bones in the chest are made to endure stressful work or when the bones are weak, this fracture of breast bone will likely happen. However, this sternum injury is not really a common type of fracture.

A fracture that shows bruised ribs symptoms is usually caused by motor vehicle accidents. These are also the same types of injuries that result to zygomatic fractures, as well as to zygomaticomaxillary fractures. These are types of ZMC fractures that are usually caused by impacts brought about by vehicular or road traffic accidents. The facial skeleton can be easily broken, which happens in the case of maxillary fractures. Due to the increase in the number of vehicular accidents, the use of seatbelts is recommended but this also leads to more people experiencing bruised or cracked rib symptoms. However, despite the sternum fractures, the good side in this is the decreased number of injuries caused by vehicular accidents on the people involved.

Other causes of bruised sternum are assaults, falls, and contact sports.

Frequency

More women experience bruised ribs symptoms than men. This could be due to how the seat belts are used.

People at Risk

Construction workers, window building cleaners, warehouse workers, and other people who work in high places and athletes who play contact sports are exposed to high risks of having a broken sternum. On the other hand, stress fracture injury on the sternum might also happen to weight lifters, golfers, and other players who use their upper body constantly for long hours. Osteoporosis and osteopenia are bone diseases that increase the risk of having symptoms of bruised ribs. Most patients with a fractured sternum have a mean age of 50.3 years. However, these types of breast bone fracture may also happen to adolescents and other older people. Thus, parents should watch out for the possibility of sternum fracture in children after they have gone through a vehicular accident or any other impact blowing activities.

Diagnosis

The doctor will first ask the patient about one’s history of injury. This will also held detect other associated injuries aside from the fractured sternum symptoms felt by the patient. The ribcage and the chest of the patient will be examined for bruising, asymmetry, and swelling. These are fracture symptoms of an injury to the sternum. Another sign of this sternum bone fracture is difficulty in breathing, and this happens to 15 to 20 percent of the patients. The doctor will also listen to the motions and sounds in your heart and lungs using a stethoscope. Heart murmurs will signify cardiac injuries.

A physical examination would follow. Like many other patients with fractures, those that have sternum fracture symptoms will also feel pain. The broken sternum bones will also feel tender when touched. If the sternum continues to palpate, there might be displacement of the breast bone. This is also the same case with grating sensation on the injured area. Even without fracture diagnosis, an insufficiency fracture in the sternum will still be seen through the exaggerated hunchback of the patients.

Some diagnostic tests have to be performed to verify whether the cracked rib symptoms that a patient is feeling are really symptoms of a sternum injury. A chest x-ray has to be done to see the lateral, posteroanterior, and sternal views. Other tests would include ultrasound and CT scan. If bruised sternum symptoms are caused by a blunt force to the chest bone, tests like cardiac monitoring, electrocardiogram, pulse oximetry, and blood tests for cardiac enzymes are also necessary. The patient’s sternum anatomy has to be tested well by the doctor to be accurate with the diagnosis and find an effective sternum fracture treatment. Patients with sternum injuries should consult the doctor immediately because this can affect breathing.

Treatment

Nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs are used for fractured sternum treatment, such as analgesics. Moreover, the patient with cracked sternum symptoms should only have limited movements so as not to worsen the effect of the fracture on the chest. Medicines that can relieve pain are significant help for patients with breastbone fracture. Emedicine can be purchased online for more convenience on the part of the patient. This is a conservative way to treat sternum fracture. The pain in the fractured area can be managed by taking nerve blocks as well. At least, the patient will no longer feel a lot of discomfort due to the pain in sternum. Stress fracture on the same spot can use the same treatment approach as the minor sternal fracture.

One way on how to heal a displaced sternum would be to make a small incision on the chest to pull the sternum out to its proper place with the use of a hook. Fracture surgery might be necessary for more severe cases of fracture of breast bone. Surgical fixation is one solution to how to treat sternum fracture quick, especially an unstable one.

Prognosis

Sternum fracture treatment, unlike in other types of stubborn fractures, can happen naturally. This comes with the knowledge that an injured sternum can heal on its own. Following all of the recommendations of the doctors can help speed up the recovery process and shorten the recovery time. On the average, it would take six to 12 weeks of sternum fracture healing time. After this time elapsed, the fracture will heal completely and the patient can get back to normal activities.

Rehabilitation

Rehab does not begin until a complete check up of the thoracic spine is made. This is adjacent to the chest, which is why there is a probability that this might just be affected. The spinal cord should be assessed as well. If no other injuries are detected, the patient can start with physical therapy. There are specific steps that are used to rehabilitate individuals with compromised respiratory system. Other factors that are considered in choosing the right physical therapy to administer would be functional limitations and age of the patient.

Rehabilitation is done in order to help reduce the pain, let the chest function well again, and prevent fracture complications from affecting the breathing of the patient. Hot or cold packs can be applied directly on the affected area to lessen the effect of a painful sternum. This can be done with some medicinal help. Deep breathing exercises should be performed as well to help avoid muscle spasm, improve full lung expansion, and increase lung secretions. This can also help in a quick sternum fracture recovery time.

Restrictions and Accommodations

After rehab, the patient can return to work but there should already be certain restrictions. Activities that involve pulling, pushing, overhead lifting, and lifting heavy objects (more than five pounds) should be restricted to avoid feeling breast bone pain. After complete fracture healing, the patient should not speed up right away into doing normal tasks. Instead, the sternum should be slowly introduced to some activities so as not to surprise the healing sternum bone.

Schatzker Fracture Treatment, Surgery, Healing Time, Recovery, Types and Exercises

The bones in the body might be rendered strong by calcium but they still tend to break when they are hit by such a strong external force. When this happens, a bone fracture occurs. A person might have Weber fracture due to the wrong position of the feet upon landing on the ground. There are even different types of Weber ankle fractures that are identified. In kids with growth plate, Salter Harris injury could happen. The doctor will also identify different Salter Harris fracture types.

Another type of fractures that could happen is tibial plateau fracture. This is usually associated with injuries on the ligaments and meniscal parts of the knee. Some doctors would consider this a serious injury, but others would say that this is just a soft tissue injury. Based on the imaging or radiography of most tibial plateau fractures, ligament injury happens 20% to 30% of the time.

Standard tibial fractures are classified under the Schatzker criteria. This is a classification system of tibial fracture wherein the higher the injury is ranked, the more chances that soft tissue injury is involved. The Schatzker classification system is based on the idea that should group together fractures with the same etiological attributes, pathoanatomic factors, and therapeutic features. In this system, the higher the numeric value of a category, the higher the severity and the worse the prognosis for the fractured knee bone. This is if a broken bone is classified as Schatzker fracture, this would already be a lot of help to the orthopedic surgeon when it comes to assessing the injury, managing the pain and other factors, and making prognosis.

In many cases after the Schatzker fracture classification has been made, the rankings might change after the diagnosis and imaging are done. This could be due to a mistake in examining the Schatzker injury without the benefit of imaging from CT scan or MRI scan. These are helpful tools in correctly doing Schatzker classification tibial plateau fractures.

Types of Tibial Fracture (Schatzker Classification)

This classification system of the fractured leg has six types of fractures. The first three Schatzker fractures, types I to III, are usually caused by injury that is of low impact due to a low injury performance. The second batch of fracture of tibia, types IV to VI, is caused by high level injury. Depending on how strong the force that hit the broken tibia bones of the patient, some level of fragmentation and displacement are bound to happen. A good fracture diagnosis would help discover the right type of fracture in a patient. It should be noted that some fracture complications would happen. In some cases, fracture surgery might be necessary.

Type I

The Schatzker bone fracture occurs on the cleavage part of lateral tibial plateau. It usually has 4mm of depression or displacement in the fracture. If this is compared to type II, they would appear almost the same. The depth of the depressed tibial plateau fracture cannot be measured though with the help of ordinary radiographs due to how subtle they appear. The break in the bone happens when the lateral femoral condyle is driven to the surface of the tibial plateau. Among all the types of tibial plateau fracture, this accounts for six percent of the case. This usually happens to younger patients with proper bone mineralization. When it comes to fracture healing time, this type would heal the fastest among the six types. Anyone would like to hasten recovery time so as to return to normal activities.

An impact on the side of the knee would also result to having distraction injury. The fracture of knee usually happens with a vague force and axial loading. On how to treat Schatzker type I fracture, it should be able to align, stabilize, and relieve the pain in the joint. This should also help minimize the complications of posttraumatic osteoarthritis. The patient can choose between open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with or without arthroscopy. The operation would also make use of two screws. This is only one way on how to heal a tibial fracture. Taking medicines would be necessary in some cases, especially of the pain escalates in the cold.

Type II

This type of fracture happens to the cleavage of the fracture along with compression on the lateral tibial plateau fracture. It is also characterized by its depression in the fractured area. Like in the case of type I, the depression cannot be easily detected and studied with plain radiograph and it would look like type I too. When the fracture is more than 4mm, it is already considered as a depression. This type II fracture accounts for 25% of all the fractures on the tibial plateau. The usual victims of this fracture are those in their 40s and older due to the occurrence of the disease called osteopenia. The injury usually happens when there is also a vague force that hits the knee. Distraction injury is still a common associated injury that happens on the meniscal. This type of fracture is treated with an open surgery for the unstable fracture. This could be a way on how to treat Schatzker fracture quick.

Type III

There are two types of this fracture – type IIIA or a fracture with lateral depression and type IIIB or a fracture with central depression. This fracture usually affects the stability of axial, which usually happens with type IIIB fractures. Type IIIA can be treated even without surgery if there is only a small articular depression and the joint remains fixed in place and untouched. On the other hand, type IIIB might receive more serious injuries that have to be elevated with the use of a submetaphyseal cortical window. Type III fracture treatment may be done with arthroscopic reduction.

Arthroscopic assistance is really necessary with types I and III while types II, IV, V, VI do not really use this type of assistance.

Type IV

This refers to a medial tibial fracture with depression. The injury usually happens with axial loading and varus force. When the knee suffers from posteromedial coronal split, this could be due to a hyperflexed knee and axial loading. Type IV accounts for ten percent of all the fractures to the knee and has the worst prognosis of all the tibial plateau fractures. Schatzker fracture in children, who are balls of energy, would likely happen due to their high energy. The dislocation in this fracture might also damage the popliteal and peroneal nerves. Older patients would likely have the fracture due to a low energy blow.

Type V

This has the medial and lateral tibial plateau broken. The most visible characteristic of this fracture is its Y appearance. The lateral plateau would have an articular depression that cannot be addressed by first aid treatment. Unlike the type VI fracture, Schatzker V fracture has metaphyseal-diaphyseal continuity. This only accounts for three percent of all the fractures in the tibia. This usually happens due to a high energy mechanism, which is possible in a motor vehicle collision. Other associated injuries would include avulsion injury and peripheral meniscal detachment.

In type V, condylar fracture happens which cause your injury to be unstable. Bicondylar fractures have the cruciate ligaments bear the pressure of maintaining joint stability. If there is another fracture on the interconylar eminence, this is already labeled as a four-part fracture that results to the instability of the knee.

In this Schatzker tibial fracture, splinting or putting a fracture cast can be an option. Temporary fixation can also help hasten treatment to start with rehabilitation of the injured part.

Type VI

This Schatzker 6 fracture is characterized by a transverse subcondylar fracture with the metaphysic disassociated from the diaphysis. This accounts for 20% of all the tibial fractures. The mechanism of the injury is due to a high level of energy that hits the knee. Schatzker VI tibial plateau fracture is also another complicated fracture, just like type V. Thus, the patient cannot expect quick rehab afterwards. Those exercises to restore the body to the way it was have to wait and to help shorten the Schatzker fracture healing time. One-third of these types of Schatzker VI fracture is open and is usually associated with extensive soft tissue injury. Moreover, the patient is exposed to experiencing compartment syndrome.

Scaphoid Fracture Treatment, Scaphoid Bone Fracture Healing Time, Surgery, Recovery, Symptoms and Types

Common Questions About the Scaphoid Fracture

What do you know about scaphoid fracture? This is only one on the many types of bone fractures that can be had when you have an accident or fall. Like many other patients who have had fractures before, you would likely have many questions in your head too about what this type of fracture injury. A breakage can happen to any of the bones in your body hence the classification of these fractures is based on where the broken bone lies.

What are scaphoid and navicular bones?

These are two different names for the same kind of bone. The scaphoid bone refers to the entire wrist joint. Now, the navicular bone is more popularly used to refer to the bone that is found in the foot.

Who are the usual victims of this hand fracture?

Fractured scaphoid usually happens to adolescents and adults. Scaphoid wrist fracture is the most common type of scaphoid bone fracture. Men are more prone to fractured scaphoid than women. Even if the scaphoid bone is smaller than those bones found the forearms, the former is harder to break than the latter. Thus, you would not get a scaphoid wrist fracture unless the impact during your accident is so strong. Most of the victims of these types of scaphoid fracture are those who participate in sports hence athletes. Those who are fond of basketball, football, and motorcycle riding usually experience scaphoid waist fracture and other types of this bone breakage. Victims of an automobile accident also usually get scaphoid fracture wrist. Most likely, people would take a fall would have their hand or hands readily outstretched in order to break their fall. As a result, they would also extend their wrist joint which would usually get broken upon impact on the ground.

What is the difference of scaphoid bone fracture from the other types of fractures?

There are some characteristics that are unique to this type of scaphoid injury. Sometimes, this will just be taken as any normal sprain instead of being a fracture. This is because the scaphoid fracture symptoms are almost similar to those of the sprain. You will experience a little swelling and some pain as well. In most cases, the swelling would eventually die down in a few days. Unlike buckle fracture or any other types of fracture on your hand, forearm or fingers, there are no visible deformities that you will observe on your wrist or waist, whichever part is affected. Impacted fracture also shows some deformities in the part of the fractured bone. Without showing any signs of breakage and some other fracture symptoms, you might say that you would not even need to treat scaphoid fracture. However, a fracture diagnosis conducted by a medical facility would show the particular part of your wrist that is broken. Thus, it is sensible to delay the diagnostic procedures weeks after you have a fractured scaphoid bone. However, you should not delay the diagnosis for so long so that you would know if you will need fracture surgery or not.

How do you detect breakage symptoms?

You would know that your wrist is broken once you will have an x-ray. This will definitely tell you if you will need scaphoid fracture surgery. Some milder cases would only make use of scaphoid fracture splint. At first, the fracture would not be immediately visible but it will begin to show itself on the x-ray weeks or months after the accident. Sometimes, a bone scan is necessary to detect if there is really a fracture. This will only be done three days after you injured your wrist.

What should I expect if the scaphoid fracture treatment fails?

If healing does not really seem possible or it is really delayed, you might experience traumatic arthritis. At first, it would seem like you are already on the way to a scaphoid fracture treatment until the broken pieces of your bone starts to deteriorate. When you have the previously mentioned type of arthritis, you would experience stiffness and pain. Your wrist fracture would not be as strong as before hence you would not be able to hold things in the tight way that you were used to. The arthritis would heal eventually but it would take time, depending on how your accident has damaged your wrist.

What are the ligament injuries involved in a broken scaphoid?

It is not only the bone in the wrist joint that is broken during scaphoid fractures. The ligaments surrounding this area would also be affected. When the ligaments are already affected, the fracture healing time would take longer than necessary. You would need more recovery time so that you can restore your wrist to its good functioning condition. A surgery might be necessary for a severe case of broken scaphoid bones. If this fails still, your wrist bones would start deteriorating and your wrist joint is in for permanent stiffness.

What medicines or solutions are needed to heal the fracture?

You would certainly ask about how to heal this type of bone breakage. It can already give you a lot of discomfort if you will simply endure your injury for long. Your scaphoid fracture rehabilitation would be based on the type of fracture to handle, affected ligaments, and the level of ligament damage, if any. The rehabilitation also needs to consider the location of the broken bone. Some bones heal faster than others.

When is the fracture cast needed?

Cast treatment is ideal for incomplete wrist injuries or those that do not tear across the bone. A nondisplaced scaphoid fracture only needs 28 days at most for rehab. Complete fractures that are already displaced would take more than 28 days to heal in a cast or brace or may not heal at all. A waist fracture that is not displaced would need three months to heal if put in cast, that is, on average. Long arm cast rehab that includes the fingers would need up to six weeks to recover. There is also the thumb spica cast that you can use. Cast treatment also works for other types of fracture such as impacted fracture. However, compression fracture brought about by osteoporosis in aging people might be quite hard to recover from. There is no bone growth that is expected to happen in older people’s bones.

When is the cast ineffective?

There are certain fractures that can no longer be healed by using the cast. Instead, to avoid fracture complications, an operation should be in order. The surgery would help stabilize the broken bone with a fixation device. Without stability, no healing would take place.

When can I use my rehabilitated bones after surgery?

After the surgery and after taking the scaphoid fracture emedicine, you need to check if the bones have already recovered completely. Even if you have used the screw on your broken bones, this does not represent complete healing. The screw only serves as an alternative to a cast.  Usually, you can go back to playing sports or doing heavy work after eight weeks. If you have chosen bone grafting and nonunion, you need to wait for three months or more when the blood flow to the healing bones is poor. Poor blood flow would only lengthen activity restriction.

How long is the hospital stay during a scaphoid surgery?

Fracture of wrist or a broken scaphoid would need medicines to heal. Surgery would usually allow you to go home within the same day or spend at least one night in the hospital. A surgery on the pelvis would require you to spend a night in the hospital. You would likely be on pain medication after the surgery. You can buy emedicine instead for your convenience because this can be accessed online. Other patients would opt on naturally treating their fracture. If you are curious as to how to treat scaphoid fracture quick, you can try both natural and medical treatments. There are many free resources about how to shorten scaphoid fracture recovery time.