In the world of orthopedic medicine, there is what they call Garden classification of fractures or Garden fractures. This method of classification is used to express fracture on the basis of the deformation of the principal bone which can be shown by the result of radiograph or X-rays. Garden fracture can specifically point to femoral fractures or fractures of the neck of the femur (thigh bone) that is connected to the hip bone. This is why many descriptive terms such as midcervical, basic cervical, and subcapital fractures are often considered under the cases of femoral fractures.
Femoral neck fractures are those in the round head of the shaft and thighbone. Any fracture on the femoral neck can bring about the disruption of blood supply to the head of the femur.
Garden Fracture Classification or Types
There are 4 classifications of garden fractures that are sometimes categorized into types or stages. These are:
• Stage 1. This is an incomplete fracture that occurred at the femoral shaft and the bone twisted externally. There is the displacement of the trabecular markings in the femoral neck from the midline in relation to the position of the femoral head. In other words, this is a fracture that has an impaction in valgus configuration but still the fracture is considered stable.
• Stage 2. This is a complete but non-displaced fracture but the femoral neck moved although still maintained a normal alignment along with the femoral head. It is still considered stable.
• Stage 3. There is often angulated and rotated shaft involved although the bone is still in contact with the femoral neck. This is a complete form of fracture with partially displaced bones.
• Stage 4. This is a completely displaced fracture where fragments of bones do not have contact with the major part of the bones. The femur is rotated externally and severely displaced from the femoral head. In this case, the head is completely detached from the femoral neck. This is considered unstable.
Garden hip fracture is a common one.
Since most of the garden fractures are not visible on X-rays during the initial diagnosis, if the surgeon suspected that there is a strong possibility of femur fracture, the case can be further diagnosed with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). This equipment can show even the internal damage to the bones which include bone marrow edema. There is also the nuclear medicine bone scanning and this method can show any increase or increase in the density of the bone. Bone scanning is also sensitive as the MRI but less expensive. The only problem with it is it can only take clearer images after 48 to 72 hours have passed after the bone has been fractured. Rehabilitation or rehab is necessary.
The most common causes of garden fractures are due to collision impacts or blows that are brought about by road accidents. Such trauma on the hip can generally cause hip and femur fractures. In children, the percentage is just narrow but almost 90 percent of the cases of hip fractures are adults. We cannot also eliminate the causes due by osteoporosis or bone tumors and bone infections which can make the bones fragile and very prone to hip and femoral fractures. Sometimes dietary issue is also another problem especially if the person has severe depletion of calcium and vitamin D in his or her system.
Garden Fracture Symptoms
While the hip and the femur is connected, symptoms of garden fractures can easily manifest symptoms such as the following:
• Inability of the person to move after the fall or accident
• Severe pain in the hip or groin area.
• The lower body can become stiff and there would be bruises and swelling around the hip area/
• Pain in the leg is most likely to be experienced.
• The side of the hip where the injury happens will tend to become shorter.
• The leg may turn inward or outward when there is severe fracture of the hip.
Garden Fracture Treatment
Depending on the type or stage of the fracture, treatment can be non-surgical or surgical treatment. For garden bone fracture stage 1, there could be the non-surgical fixation or adduction of the femoral neck and casting. Its surgical procedures involve fixation with the use of cannulated screws and multiple pins. For stage 2, there will be internal fixation that will be treated with closed reduction and so screws or pins may also be used.
With stage 3 and 4, the surgeons may need to replace the fractured bone with prosthesis arthroplasty or reducing the fracture by manipulating the fragments back in their original position and then fixing them with metal screws.
Garden Healing Time or Recovery Time: It requires more than 8 weeks.
Prevention of Garden Bone Injury
If your family or you have a history of a hipbone fracture, you have to ask your doctor if you could take bone density proceedings from time to time. This will tell you if your bones are healthy and if you are suffering from osteoporosis. In recent years, this bone thinning disease has become the leading cause for adults who suffer from hip fractures. If you are already osteoporotic, there are now external hip protectors, which you can use to make your hips safe. These are like garments that function like slip on girdles.
Also, monitor your anemia levels. Because anemia is the state wherein the numbers of red blood cells are lesser than normal, being anemic can make you unsteady in your balance, become lightheaded and will be prone to falls and hip injury. Exercising regularly can improve your balance and the condition of your bones and muscles. Eat balanced diet as well, because this is the only way to sustain your bones with calcium and vitamin D which are the main minerals that can make your bones stronger.
When to Call a Doctor
Once you see symptoms of a hip fracture after an accident and the person complains of pain in the groin and hip area while he or she is unable to walk or even stand, you must call medical help immediately because possibly this could be a case of garden fracture that have injured the hip area. Hip fracture can make the person disabled so you must consider this a serious medical case.